参考翻译能源公司

英文部分来自 Economist 杂志.. 1三月10日的期刊..

翻译仅作学习之用.. 感谢阅读喔 -v-

CHARLES KOCH may well be the most demonised businessman in America, with
his younger brother, David, a close second. Journalists argue that he is
the mastermind of the country’s vast right-wing conspiracy. Lunatics
have made death threats. The ultra-rich, particularly those who made
their original fortunes in oil and gas, are supposed to make amends by
giving their money to liberal causes. The Kochs have instead spent
hundreds of millions backing conservative political causes (though
Charles Koch has no love for Donald Trump), lobbying for lower taxes and
attacking the idea of man-made global warming.

说到全美最被妖魔化的商贩,查尔斯 Koch可能当仁不让,而她三哥 戴维大致位列第二。
记者们认为他是我国右翼阴谋的大策划者,疯子们甚至发生了与世长辞勒迫。一流富豪们,尤其是这一个在原油和天然气中积累了原来财富的人,应该经过在自由主义上花钱来弥补。
Kochs却齐足并驱,他把数亿比索都花在游说下跌税收和口诛笔伐人为环球变暖的眼光上 ,以此帮助保守的政治原因(虽然查理(Charles) Koch 并不爱好 唐纳德(Donald) 川普 )。

背景知识

那边有个梗,因为Donald川普也是协理那八个政治眼光的,小编在括号里解释Koch并不是因为支撑特朗普(Trump)的政见才出钱的,Koch
只是 Koch。

Mr Koch doesn’t come across as Dr Evil.  True, the headquarters of Koch
Industries is a collection of black boxes outside Wichita, Kansas; the
security screening is rigorous. But its CEO has more of the air of a
university professor. Despite his $40bn fortune, he lives in a
nondescript neighbourhood in one of America’s most boring cities, puts
in nine or more hours a day in the office and lunches in the company
canteen. He doesn’t seem that interested in his surroundings:
complimented on the firm’s art collection, he says his wife takes care
of that sort of thing. What he is really interested in is books and
ideas.

Koch
并不是怎么魔鬼大学生(那里是和第一句的demonised呼应,解释那人并不是价值观认知中的妖魔),诚然Koch工业的总部就是Knasas州的Wichita以外安检严刻的黑盒子集合,但它的老总却是个如此的高校助教:即便她有400亿新币的财富,他住在U.S.A.最无聊的城市中,一个不起眼的街区,每一天在办公室工作九个钟头以上,在店铺餐厅吃中饭,他对周围的条件漠然初之:夸奖公司格局藏品的时候,他说都是她的太太在管那几个东西,他真的感兴趣的是书和设法。

能源公司,It was as an engineering student at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in the 1950s that he first fell in love with ideas. There he
hit on the subject that has preoccupied him since: why some human
organisations flourish while others stagnate. He gorged on the Austrian
school of economics—F.A. Hayek, Joseph Schumpeter and, his personal
favourite, Ludwig von Mises, Hayek’s mentor. He devoured American
polemicists such as F.A. “Baldy” Harper, whose treatise of 1957, “Why
Wages Rise” (because of productivity improvements by workers, not union
action), he describes as “life-changing”.

作为一个20世纪50年间在加州戴维斯分校高校就读的工程系学生,他一开端醉心于一些想方设法。在那里,他张开了从那以来平昔关注的话题:为何有些人类协会得以蓬勃发展,而其别人则因循守旧。他得出了奥地利管教育学派——
F.A. Hayek,约瑟夫(Joseph)(Joseph) Schumpeter以及她个人最喜爱的,Hayek 的老师Ludwig von
Mises 。他向 比如 F.A.“Baldy”Harper那类美利哥的辩论家饱学诸多,此人1957年见报了一篇杂谈“为何涨薪”(那是由于工人的生产力改革,而不源自工会行动),他将此描述为“人生变革”。

Since then his reading has taken him far and wide. The bookshelves in
his office are stuffed with works of history, biographies and the latest
titles with big ideas. He is surprisingly keen on Howard Gardner, a
quintessential Harvard-Yard liberal, and his theory of multiple
intelligences (linguistic, musical and interpersonal among them). But Mr
Koch found the answer to his question about how organisations prosper by
reading the classical liberals: he regards the “spontaneous order” of
the free market—the notion that systems are best left to correct
naturally, free of human intervention, with the price mechanism
allocating resources to the most efficient use—with the same awe with
which he regards the natural order of the universe.

从那时候开端,阅读充实了她。他办公的书架上放满了历史、传记和新颖标题与伟大想法的小说。令人吃惊的是,他欣赏
霍华德加德纳(Gardner),一个顶尖的加州伯克利(Berkeley)分校大学自由主义者和他的多元智能理论(语言、音乐和人际关系)。而Koch发现了通过阅读古典自由主义来振兴社团的题目标答案:他肯定自由市场的“自发秩序”这几个定义——连串最好自然运作,少了人类的干预,价格机制将资源分配给最可行的拔取

  • 她对大自然的本来秩序报以同一的烜赫一时。

Mr Koch has used his reading to forge a theory of management which the
Charles Koch Institute, his think-tank-cum-philanthropic outfit, has
trademarked as market-based management or MBM. The main idea is that
market signals should operate just as vigorously within organisations as
between them. Workers should be paid according to the value they add
rather than their position in the hierarchy. Koch Industries keeps base
pay low (it is regarded as just a down-payment on the year’s value-added
reward) and workers are often paid more than their bosses. Companies
should grant “decision rights” to those employees who have records of
making choices that boost profits.

Koch先生以她的开卷积淀 在她的智囊团和慈善机构 查理Koch探究所内成立了一个管制理论,那个理论已被登记为市场化管理或MBM。主旨理想是市场信号在集体之中应该像在它们中间同样有力地运作。工人应该根据他们伸张的市值,而不是她们在层次结构中所处的职位来博取薪给。Koch
工业集团提供了较低的底薪(它被视为只是一个年头的增值奖励的首付),工人平时赚得比她们的老总还要多,公司应该给那几个有提升盈利的笔录的员工“决策权”。

As Mr Koch’s philosophy took shape, so his company boomed. When he took
over as chief executive from his father in the late 1960s Koch
Industries was a small company centred on oil and gas with $200m in
yearly sales and 650 employees. Today it is the second-largest private
firm in America, with $100bn in annual revenues and more than 100,000
employees. It is one of the world’s largest commodities traders,
operates three ranches covering more than 460,000 acres, processes some
600,000 barrels of crude oil a day and produces a wide range of
materials such as paper towels, nylon and spandex. Koch Industries
estimates that its value has increased over 4,500 times since 1960,
outperforming the S&P 500 index by a factor of nearly 30.

趁着Koch的见解日益形成,他的商号也在蓬勃发展。当她在20世纪60年份从她老爹手中接任高管时,Koch工业只是一家以石油和天然气为主导的小店铺,年销售额2亿加元,员工650名。到了明天,它曾经是米利坚其次大独资公司,年收入1000亿英镑,员工领先10万人。它是社会风气上最大的商品贸易商之一,经营着面积当先46万英亩的几个牧场,每一天处理大致60万桶原油,生产比如纸巾、尼龙和氨在内的各样资料。粗略估计,Koch
工业自1960年以来,其市值扩张了4500很多次,超过标准普尔500指数接近30倍。

背景知识

标准普尔500(Standard & Poor’s 500,S&P
500),又译为史坦普500,是一个由1957年起记录美利坚同盟国股市的平均记录,观望范围达美利坚合众国的500家上市公司。标准普尔500指数的组成股票是由一个委员会选择并会转移股票。那一个运作方式较接近道Jones工业平均指数,不过它的严俊性却分歧于一般的别样指数,其余指数都是少见严峻的。也正因为标准普尔500指数评选公司的从严,它的股市代表性极强,甚至能够显示美利坚同盟国经济的兴衰。

Yet MBM has attracted remarkably few imitators. Mr Koch says that
Morning Star, a California-based tomato producer, has also experimented,
independently, with an internal-market system, but that hardly suggests
a fashion. One reason may be that Koch Industries is based in the
Midwest, away from the great business-theory factories such as Harvard
or Stanford. Another is that it is easy to imagine MBM degenerating into
a time-consuming bureaucracy. In any case, the firm’s success probably
owes as much to Mr Koch’s managerial drive as to MBM (insiders joke that
Koch stands for “keep old Charlie happy)”, and to two big insights: that
its core competence in processing, transporting and trading can be
applied to a wide range of commodities; and that the Midwest is full of
first-class engineers and technicians educated in places like Murray
State University and the University of Tulsa.

只是MBM已经引发了有的效仿者。
Koch先生说,马里长春的番茄生产商晨星也单独地品尝了中间市场制度,但那基本不表示一种时尚。一个原因或许是Koch工业公司位于中西边,远离了诸如威斯康星麦迪逊分校或密歇根香槟分校等商业理论产地。另一个缘故是,很不难想象MBM会变成一个耗时的官僚机构。不管怎么着,集团的功成名就或许归功于
Koch 用MBM进行的军事管制驱动(内部人士有个玩笑就是,Koch代表“ 让老 Charlie
心情舒畅”),还有三个明显的理由:其拍卖、运输和贸易的主题力量可使用于大规模范围的货品,而中西边地区具有在Murray州立高校和 Tulsa 高校等地受过教育的头号工程师和技术员们。

Even if MBM is not quite the magic formula that Mr Koch claims, however,
it serves two clear purposes. It provides a diverse and rapidly growing
company with a glue. Koch employees speak of MBM with the same
enthusiasm that General Electric’s employees once talked about Six
Sigma. Unsurprisingly, many have read Mr Koch’s books on MBM, “The
Science of Success” (2007) and “Good Profit” (2015). For the less
scholarly, MBM is funnelled into ten “guiding principles” (such as
“principled entrepreneurship”) printed on coffee cups and posters
throughout the group.

不怕MBM不是Koch号称的神奇公式,但它有三个肯定的目标,它提供一个多样化和神速成长的有粘性的店铺。
Koch员工谈到MBM时也有着相同的满腔热情,通用电气的职工已经谈及六标准差。不出所料,许几个人都读过Koch先生关于MBM的书,一本是“成功的没错”(二〇〇七年),一本是“好利润”(二零一五年)。而不那么学术的,MBM融入的措施是被印在所有集团的咖啡杯和海报的十个“引导规范”上(比如“基本创业精神”)。

背景知识

六标准差(斯拉维尼亚语:Six Sigma,6
sigma),又译为六西格玛,用于流程改良的工具与程序,是商贸管理的韬略之一。

His philosophy also keeps the firm focused on Schumpeter’s idea of
creative destruction. Mr Koch is good at spotting opportunities (buying
Georgia Pacific, a pulp and paper firm, in 2005 for $21bn, produced a
spell of fast growth). Less obviously, he is always pruning businesses
that start to fade. Koch Industries could easily have been a low-growth
energy company stuck in the middle of the Great Plains. That it has
instead succeeded in doubling its earnings every six years or so since
the 1960s is thanks in large part to Mr Koch’s unconventional and
scholarly mind.

她的构思也使集团留意于Schumpeter 的创建性破坏理论,
Koch先生善于发现机会(在二〇〇五年花210亿比索购买了一家纸浆和纸张集团Georgia
Pacific,就像魔法一般的高速增加)。相对低调的是,他老是精简早先衰败的店家,Koch工业可能很简单成为一个卡在大平原中心的低增加能源公司。1960年间以来,它成功地将其收入每六年扩充一倍,而那很大程度上都要归功于Koch先生的不走常常路和学者思想。

背景知识

creative destruction 创制性破坏理论是伟人的经济学家Schumpeter
最闻明的眼光,那是其公司家理论和经济周期理论的根底。在他看来,“创造性破坏”是资本主义的本质性事实,紧要的题目是研商资本主义怎样创设并随之破坏经济布局,而那种结构的成立和损坏紧要不是因而价格竞争而是借助立异的竞争落成的。每四次大规模的更新都淘汰旧的技能和生产连串,并创制起新的生育系统。

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